Thursday, May 21, 2020

A Brief Note On Vehicular Networks And The Future Of The...

In the paper â€Å"Vehicular networks and the future of the mobile internet† by Mario Gerla and Leonard Kleinrock, the authors identify the urban Internet infrastructure role that a network of vehicle grids can support with applications that range from email and voice over IP to emergency operations in case of natural disaster, terrorist attacks or other events that can disrupt the operation of wired networks. The vehicle grid components (radios, access points, spectrum, standards and others) constitute the concept of VANET (Vehicle Adhoc Network) and they are going to be use in the build of car-to-car applications. There are a lot of emerging applications that are taking advantage of the VANET. The focus of this paper is to review the role of the Internet Infrastructure in supporting vehicular applications. The main different between the VANET and MANET (Mobile Ad hoc Networks) is that in VANET the wired Internet Infrastructure is accessible and omnipresent via Wi-Fi, DSRC, WiMAX, 3G, LTE. A usual practice of considering the wireless network an extensions attached by a edge gateways is becoming non economical and instead the use of mesh networks, overlays and virtualization is been considered as a viable option to connect the services on the internet backbone. The paper examines the emerging application that can be provided and the vehicle oriented internet services. These have been the first steps towards mobile vehicle architecture. Most of the investigation already performedShow MoreRelatedBusiness in Singapore30736 Words   |  123 PagesGlobalisation Stages and Risk Issues - Singapore Insurance Market INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY - Copyright - Trademarks - Patents - Industrial Designs - Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights SINGAPORE INFO-COMM TECHNOLOGY LANDSCAPE - Fibre Broadband - Fixed-Mobile Convergence - Cloud Computing 15 52 21 59 63 27 66 30 33 39 2 DOING BUSINESS IN SINGAPORE FOREWORD Singapore as your Anchor in Asia For many years, our Guide to Doing Business in Singapore has been wellRead MoreProject Mgmt296381 Words   |  1186 Pagesreserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning. Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States. This book is printed on acid-free paper. 1 2

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Should Renewable Energy Be A Higher Concern Four Or...

The energy in our country is suffering, we have been powering with inefficient sources for years now and the harm that it is doing to the country has started to become apparent. Renewables are the only way to stop, or at the very least set back the inevitable downfall of our ecosystem. I think that the next big breakthrough for renewable energy is implementing off-grid communities that use renewable sources as their main sources of power, so that we can potentially escape the energy rut that we got ourselves stuck in. America is wasting their finite resource, such as coal and nuclear when we could actually be using renewable sources. Most of our countries citizens either have never thought about where their energy comes or they do not†¦show more content†¦In 2012, NREL found that together, renewable energy sources have the technical potential to supply 482,247 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity annually. This amount is 118 times the amount of electricity the nation currently consumes. However, it is important to note that not all of this technical potential can be tapped due to conflicting land use needs, the higher short-term costs of those resources, constraints on ramping up their use such as limits on transmission capacity, barriers to public acceptance, and other hurdles.† (*Add citation) (*Unfinished paragraph). It is a widely accepted fact that renewable energy would be highly beneficial to our country and the general well being of those living in our country. Instilling this new way of energy usage into our communities will inevitably increase the state of living for those in cities and other well populated areas. The change to renewable energy sources could drastically lower the pollutants currently being dispersed into the atmosphere by coal mines and other harmful power options, increasing the supply of renewable energy would allow us to replace carbon-intensive energy sources and significantly reduce U.S. global warming emissions†¦ a 25 percent by 2025 national renewable electricity standard would lower power plant CO2 emissions 277 million metric tons annually by 2025—the

Developmental Growths Of Oled Technology Engineering Essay Free Essays

string(48) " reported up to now was obtained by Ikai et Al\." The importance of electronic shows has late increased due to the advanced developments of LED or light breathing rectifying tube engineering. These developments have brought LED engineering to its following degree by affecting a series of organic thin movies between two music directors, which are known as Organic light-emitting diode or ( organic visible radiation breathing rectifying tube ) . OLEDs can be used to do high efficiency shows and dynamic lighting. We will write a custom essay sample on Developmental Growths Of Oled Technology Engineering Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now Due to the visible radiation emitted from the OLEDs, they do non necessitate a backlight and so are thinner and more efficient than LCD shows which presently require a white backlight. The chances of OLED engineering are great but non without its hurdlings. Presently, it costs more to bring forth OLEDs them modern LCD engineering. Similarly, their overall life clip is reasonably limited, these and other issues urgently need to be addressed to properly implement them in the consumer market. Introduction In the mid-20th century research workers at the Universit A ; eacute ; de Nancy in France foremost produced electroluminescence with organic stuffs. These research workers developed setup that would direct excitement of the dye molecules or excitement of negatrons [ Bernius, M ] . These electroluminescent cells were developed utilizing acridine orange and mepacrine with a high electromotive force of jumping current. After their success many stuffs were studied and experimented in assorted establishments to detect a stuff that would supply a high quality visible radiation end product. It was discovered that certain plastics could be altered into conductive stuffs. This find helped the apprehension of conductive stuffs and their belongingss. These finds revolutionized the attack to digital engineering by showing a cheaper and more flexible option to expensive semiconducting materials of the clip. In 1985 the Eastman Kodak Company developed a bilayer device based on vapour deposited molecular movies that used a hole conveyance bed with a bed electroluminescence. This find was done by accident while they were experimenting with solar cells and noticed a glowing stuff that was subsequently patented and was the start of OLED engineering [ Tang, C. W. ] . This new rectifying tube showed the potency of a device that would hold improved efficiency with less power to run. Modern OLED devices are able to breathe visible radiation on their ain, unlike LCD devices that are dependent on backlight beginning to make light. Light is emitted from the smaller OLED pels with aid of a really thin organic movie bed. This bed of organic stuff is placed between two music directors, which are besides between a glass top home base and a glass underside home base kwon as the substrate. When an electric Current is applied to the two music directors, a bright, electro luminescent visible radiation is produced from the organic stuff. OLED engineering is really dynamic when it comes to light that can breathe from really little luminescent to a really high degree measured in little increases. With the add-on of colour movies, OLEDs can use the basic colour specifying pigments ruddy, green and bluish to make any coveted colour or shadiness including white [ So, Franky ] . Unfortunately, these rectifying tubes are still expensive to bring forth. Newly developing engineerings such as intercrossed light-emitting bed that consists of non-conductive polymers doped with light-emitting conductive polymers offer both mechanical and production advantages that could assist work out the disbursal of these rectifying tubes [ So, Franky ] . More research is required to develop a higher quality production of OLEDs, fortuitously with the degree of advancement already achieved with OLEDs ; it will merely be a affair of clip. Body At this clip OLED engineering is the taking following coevals engineering for level panel shows. OLED devices will dwell of full colour visible radiation breathing engineering, which provide high brightness, low power ingestion and great contrast. Furthermore, they are compact, lightweight, can defy important mechanical tonss have have a broad scope of operating temperatures [ Wen, S.-W. , M.-T ] . The possible for these show devices is rather big. Their application from cell phones, auto wireless to the helmet mounted index shows on the windscreen of vehicles and illuming can greatly better assorted developing engineerings. The development of phosphorescent stuffs like OLED, can be non merely use to expose devices, but besides as a thin movie light beginning that may replace legion incandescent big and expensive non organic LED beginnings. OLEDs produce light by the recombination of negatrons and holes. When a electromotive force is applied across the device, negatrons are injected from cathode and holes are injected from anode. Transport and radiative recombination of electron-hole braces is at the emissive polymer beds [ M A ; uuml ; llen, K. , ] . As the negatrons bead into the holes, they release energy in the signifier of visible radiation. The colour of the visible radiation emitted depends on the composing of the organic emissive bed. Multiple beds can be combined in one device to bring forth any colour including white. Material efficiencies The chief demands for OLED stuffs are high luminescence in the solid province, good bearer mobility, good thermal and oxidative stableness and good colour pureness [ Wen, S.-W. , M.-T ] . The i ¬?rst coevals of efi ¬?cient OLEDS developed from Eastman Kodak was based on i ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å¡uorescent stuffs. In this instance, the emanation of visible radiation is the consequence of the recombination of vest excitons or nomadic concentration of energy in a crystal. However, the internal efi ¬?ciency is limited to 25 % [ M A ; uuml ; llen, K. , ] . The 2nd coevals uses phosphorescent stuffs where all excitons emit through an efi ¬?ciently four times more than i ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å¡uorescent stuffs. The presence of heavy atoms such as Ir or Pt additions spin-orbit yoke, favours intersystem traversing and allows radiative three passages. Baldo et Al. 30 were the i ¬?rst to describe the usage of green phosphorescent dye to increase the device efi ¬?ciency. Highly efi ¬?cient viridity and ruddy electro phosphorescent emitters have been demonstrated with internal quantum efi ¬?ciencies nearing 100 % . 31,32 The highest aglow efi ¬?ciency of 70 lumen W?1 reported up to now was obtained by Ikai et Al. You read "Developmental Growths Of Oled Technology Engineering Essay" in category "Essay examples" 33 utilizing tris ( 2-phenylpyridine ) Ir ( III ) ( Ir ( ppy ) 3 ) phosphorescent dye in an improved device construction. Phosphorescent stuffs have besides been used in polymer engineering ( wet procedure ) . 34 The stuffs used for OLEDs are formless or semi-crystalline i ¬?lms. For SM-OLED, typical p-type stuffs are derived functions of triarylamines, and n-type stuffs consist of derived functions of metal chelates such as tris ( 8-hydroxyquinolato ) aluminum ( III ) ( Alq3 ) , triazoles or oxadiazoles. The efi ¬?ciency is improved by doping the breathing bed with assorted organic dyes as shown in Table 1. By and large the doping rate is about 1-2 wt % and this solution has been widely used to tune the coloring material and to better the device life-time. It has been demonstrated that by doping the host Alq3 with assorted guest molecules such as coumarin 540 ( C540 ) , 2,4-bis ( dicyanomethylene ) – 6- ( p-dimethylaminostyryl ) -4H-pyran ( DCM1 ) or [ 2-methyl-6- [ 2- ( 2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H,5H-benzo [ ij ] quinolizin-9-yl ) ethenyl ] -4H-pyran-4-ylidene ] propanedinitrile ( DCM2 ) , the electroluminescence efi ¬?-ciency can be improved by a factor of two at least. 7 Furthermore, by utilizing these dopants, a broad scope of colorss from greenish-blue to orangish-red can be obtained. Stability Device stableness is an of import issue for an emissive engineering such as OLEDs, and peculiarly differential ripening of the three primary colourss. Despite the absence of any standardised measuring method, the device life-time is normally dei ¬?ned as the average clip to half-brightness. It is by and large assumed that for show applications, except likely for portable electronics, a life-time of over 20 000 H with a sensible brightness degree of at least 100 cadmium m?2 is necessary. However, as discussed subsequently in this paper, to accomplish such a degree of show brightness, the luminosity of each pel needs to be much higher, and it has been widely shown that the life-time of OLEDs beads dramatically for high luminosity values. Degradation phenomena occur both under operating conditions and while the device is in storage, and consequence in a lessening in device luminosity and an addition of the on the job electromotive force over clip for a changeless current denseness val ue. Three distinguishable debasement mechanisms have been identii ¬?ed in small-molecule-based OLEDs: 46 dark-spot debasement, ruinous failure and intrinsic debasement. While the i ¬?rst two debasement manners can be moderately solved by agencies of equal control over the device fiction conditions ( clean room, glove-box, encapsulation ) , the intrinsic debasement mechanism is more ambitious and still remains an issue for OLED engineering and peculiarly for the bluish colour. Signii ¬?cant activity is taking topographic point in order to better device life-time by utilizing new stuffs that are immune to oxidization and by developing efi ¬?cient encapsulation procedures. High glass passage temperature ( Tg ) stuffs are desired in order to acquire stable devices under operation. Lifetimes now reported in the literature for the most advanced i ¬?rst coevals RGB stuffs ( i ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å¡uorescent SM stuffs and polymers ) are good over 20 000 H at room temperature and at least for luminosity up to 100 cadmium m?2. Nevertheless, the bluish life-time remains weaker ( peculiarly for polymer stuffs ) which could do a ruddy displacement of the show due to differential ripening of RGB colourss. Typical life-time values are shown in Table 2 for the 2nd coevals of stuffs. 47 Efi ¬?cient and stable bluish phosphorescent stuffs are non yet available and remain a challenge for the chemist. One has to maintain in head that the life-time drops dramatically with increasing temperature, and most of the paradigms developed so far have a life-time of 6000-8000 H at room temperature, which is non high plenty for more demanding applications such as telecasting or computing machine shows. In contrast to other show engineerings, OLED shows can be fabricated on i ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å¡exible substrates but so far such i ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å¡exible devices have non reached the market owing chiefly to their limited life-time. Effective encapsulation ( both on the underside and top side of the device ) o f i ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å¡exible OLED shows is still an industrial challenge. A reappraisal of thin-i ¬?lm pervasion barrier engineering for i ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å¡exible OLEDs has been published late. 48 Future Tendencies OLED engineering is the following large thing. It is a new engineering used to make thin, efficient and bright shows and illuming panels. OLED shows have many advantages over LCDs every bit good more colourss, increased brightness and contrast ratio, faster response clip for full gesture picture and less power ingestion. OLEDs devices are highly efficient between 95 – 99 % of the input energy converted to visible radiation. Since the beds that make up the OLED are really thin, photons are non trapped within the active part, as can be the instance with LCD devices. The contrast ratio is an country where OLED show trumps plasma show though, since it offers blacker inkinesss and brighter Whites. The contrast ratios for plasma shows are around the 5,000:1 grade whereas for OLED shows this figure runs up to 1,000,000:1 [ Merson, Gary ] . Both displays employ pels that are emissive in nature and make visible radiation instead than barricade the visible radiation from an external beg inning. This blocking of light creates a great egress experience with broad position capablenesss. One possible hereafter vision for OLED engineering is the usage on transparent Windowss. These devices would work like a regular window by twenty-four hours. At dark it could be switched on and go a light beginning or an internal pilotage system. This could be possible because OLED allows transparent shows and light beginnings. The current province of OLED engineering is really exciting since the many old ages of its development is eventually demoing really originative results. Thin movie shows and luminescent lighting applications have greatly progressed with OLED structured developing engineerings. The chances of OLED engineering are great but non without its hurdlings. Decision OLED is an emerging new engineering for thin panel shows and luminescents. It can be used for mp3 participants, cell phones, digital cameras or handheld gambling devices. The field of applications for OLED shows is wide. Compared to LCD and plasma OLED is a better engineering in all facets. OLED show features develop perfect black, sing angles, highly fast response clip, true colour deepness, highly slender frame with low power ingestion. The lone downside of the OLED engineering is the monetary value and its life-time. Currently, OLED shows are merely come ining the market so their production costs and monetary values are really high. Plasma and LCD shows have been around for many old ages, so they are much cheaper. This factor along with the long life of Plasma shows gives them the border in the current market, but OLED engineering is a developing engineering. As the engineering progresses the monetary values of these shows will diminish and their popularity will increase therefore they will slowly push plasma shows off the market. This engineering has great possible and has a really broad scope of applications. It has important cost advantage compared with the production engineering of liquid crystal matrices. These devices are much less rich in stuffs ; they require a significantly smaller figure of fabricating operations. Though OLED engineering is still being developed, assorted signifiers are already on the market such as Super AMOLED shows, in the close hereafter we will see more advanced presentations of this developing engineering and its benefits every bit shortly as the hurdlings are overcome. How to cite Developmental Growths Of Oled Technology Engineering Essay, Essay examples

Friday, April 24, 2020

Notre Dame De Paris Essays - Kingdom Hearts Characters, Operas

Notre Dame De Paris Everyday, the people of Paris are accustomed to waking to the bells of Notre Dame. Today, the 6th of January, was different though. It is to be a hectic and eventful for the ambassadors of Flanders would arrive to discuss the marriage of the price to Margaret of Flanders. Coincidentally that same day was the Epiphany and the well-renowned Festival of Fools. As the citizens of Paris awoke, they assembled in the great hall with different expectations. Many came to watch the crowning of the Pope of Fools; others are anxiously awaiting the start of a melodrama. Astoundingly, the great hall is filled beyond capacity when tensions break and the crowd orders that the promised play to begin at once. It is here where we meet an important plot developer, Gringoire the poet, who has drafted the play and as any good playwright would, is tremendously happy about his masterpiece. However, to his arrant horror everyone present in the great mass of Parisians losses interest in his production when the ambassadors and other dignitaries arrive with the archbishop. Determined to have his piece performed, Gringoire pressures the four actors to continue. Unfortunately, his attempts are vain. Some time afterwards a crowd rallies together and begins the election of the Pope of Fools. The crowd becomes boisterous, even his own actors are drawn to the election. Soon Gringoire is left alone. His hopes and expectations vanquished, the story's playwright departs into the streets as the rest of the city parades its newfound Pope of Fools, the opprobrious, grotesque, Quasimodo. As people of all ages presented their hideous grimaces in hopes of being elected Pope, the notorious hunchback of Notre Dame Cathedral was spotted amongst the assemblage and crowned the most hideous creature on earth. Afterwards, Quasimodo is raised above the crowd and is ridiculed. However, he perceives the crowd is paying homage to his crown. Penniless, without shelter, food and nowhere to turn, Gringoire continues to gape the streets wondering where he will get his next meal and cursing the people of Paris and their Festival of Fools. As he roams, he finds an interesting distraction, that of La Esmeralda's show. The most beautiful of gypsies, this charming, slender young woman was perceived as a witch and sorceress because of her exotic show and well-trained goat. In actuality La Esmeralda was simply an extremely keen and generous person whose generosity and kindness left everyone she came in contact with entranced. Among the thunderstruck by her charms and resplendent beauty were the newly elected Pope, a distraught poet and a sinister and twisted priest. From atop the shoulders of the masses, Quasimodo has an excellent view of the glowing Esmeralda as she performs her dances. Her astounding beauty immediately attracts Quasimodo. He is awakened from his reverie only when his transport comes to a sudden stop at the orders of a stern and feeble priest. Suddenly the massive Pope lowers from his thrown and hurls his powerful body at the feet of the slender old priest. Astonished by the humility of their Pope, the crowd fails to realize that they have lost their entertainment for the night. Some time afterwards, we find Gringoire following La Esmeralda in hope that he might find some source of support. He is thwarted however when a tall, shadowy figure assaults the gypsy princess; and he is confronted by the powerful fists of Quasimodo. Like all damsels in distress, Esmeralda requires the help of a knight in shining armor, she finds her hero in the form of Captain Phoebus de Chateauprs. Meanwhile, Gringoire continues on his way meeting several beggars. He fails to recognize his location in a very dangerous part of Paris. He is attacked and kidnapped by the same beggars. He is taken to the dreaded Court of Miracles where the blind can see, and the lame run. There he is told that the only escape from death was that he joins them as a member of slang, or a woman can choose to marry him. He fails the tests miserly but is saved when La Esmeralda is touched with pity as the noose is placed around his neck. She offers to marry the poet pitifully. After captured by Phoebus and his archers, Quasimodo was arrested. Now, on the morrow of the festivities, he stood trial on charges of nocturnal disturbance, assault, disloyalty and resisting arrest. It was by no means a just trial. However, the judge and Quasimodo are both completely deaf. Evidently, this presents a major problem; Quasimodo

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Angels Unaware Essay Example

Angels Unaware Essay Example Angels Unaware Essay Angels Unaware Essay The beginning of March is still a bit windy not yet hot. Spring has not even hit yet so t he winters crisp air still blew well during the night. Well this particular night the wind was still but it was still cold. I was driving by myself for the first time with my mothers truck. It was pitch black. The only light was the street lights, the lights from porches that people left on, and of course my head lights . While being ribbon blind at night time I can only ride with my lights on bright. I was halfway ho me from Garlanded, Just a ten to fifteen minute drive, when I run across a man walking. Walking along Roberta Drive, a two lane road that almost everyone in Forestall, Gar dandle, Pratt, or Aggressively had traveled. Suburban area, quiet neighborhood with busy lanes. Every street that runs off of this main road had its own bus stop. No lights only stop signs. Small hills a ND lots of steep curves. Roberta Drive was busy during the early morning rush hour trying to get to w ark, busy during lunch break, and the rush hour trying to get home from work. No one walked along the is road. There was no sidewalks or even a soft shoulder. If a car was to happen to run off the road it would literally be in someone front yard. Meaning chances are if a person was to be walking and a car happens to slightly run off the road that same person would probably not make it. Homeless? Where could he be going? Should I do it? Honestly I had only owned my lice ensue for Hall 2 a week. I was driving my moms car without permission plus I could not see in the dark k. Not to mention could be another Ted Bundy and Just kill me off right then and no one would ever know w. I wanted to help him but I was so nervous because the last encounter Id had with a homeless. O en homeless that truly didnt want to be helped. Only being eleven years old I still remember that ordinary day of shopping for com on needs for our home. My mother and I went to Wall

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Low-Cost Gift Ideas for College Students

Low-Cost Gift Ideas for College Students If youre like most college students, buying gifts present a complicated dilemma: Youd like to give nice presents but you are, after all, a college student trying to live on a budget. So how can you balance wanting to give nice presents with the limits of your bank account? Luckily, there are ways to give low-cost gifts without coming across as cheap. 8 Low-Cost Gift Ideas for College Students Print out and frame a nice picture. With everything being digital these days, try to remember the last time someone gave you a printed-out picture that you can hang on your wall and how nice that present was (or would be!). If youre really short on cash, print something at the highest quality available on your printer and make a nice frame to match. Give a simple college-themed gift. While the $60 sweatshirts in the campus bookstore are pretty nice, they might also be out of your budget. See what else you can find that celebrates your time in school while costing a little less. Keychains, bumper stickers, t-shirts on the clearance rack (will your cousin really know?), plastic cups, and lots of other presents can be had for under $10 and even under $5, if you really spend some time looking. Give the gift of time. Money may be in tight supply for you, but time may not be especially if you need a gift for the holidays when youre home on break. Consider planning a nice walk with your mom, ​volunteering with your dad, hanging out with your friend at his work one afternoon, or even babysitting for your parents so they can get some time to themselves. Make something from scratch. Nearly everyone has some kind of creative talent. Think about what you do best and run with it. Can you write a few poems? Paint a picture? Mold something out of clay? Take some awesome photographs? Make something from wood? Write a song? Record yourself singing your mothers favorite tunes? Dont sell yourself short as a great source of gifts you can make completely on your own. Put together a piece of your life at college. It doesnt have to be fancy to be effective. If, say, your grandmother never had the chance to go to college, put together a shadow box or collage of images from your time in school. You can collect things like stickers, fall leaves, a page from the course catalog, or articles from the school paper to give her a piece of what your college life is like. Make a memory box for an old friend or family member. You can probably find a nice little box somewhere on campus or at a local big box or drug store. Cut up some nice pieces of paper and write a cherished memory of you and the person youre giving your gift to; fold them over once or twice; Then write a nice card that explains the gift and says how often they can unwrap one of the little memories in the box (once a week? once a month?) It can be a great trip down memory lane for you and a very personal, meaningful gift for an old friend or beloved family member. Frame a design you make. Who says only a photograph can go in a picture frame? Start with a piece of paper and get creative. Print or cut out quotes about the importance of education, snip headlines from your school paper, take (or sketch) a picture of your school as long as you put together something with a similar theme (e.g., your campus), its hard to make a homemade gift like this look bad. Let your creativity flow without worrying about the cost. Switch up a usual gift into something different. Dinner and a movie is a pretty classic gift for a girlfriend, boyfriend, or even a parents birthday. But if your money is tight, you can switch things up to have an equally good time without the high cost. Consider, for example, going to breakfast and a movie. The food bill will be cheaper, your movie will likely be a matinee (and cheaper than an evening film), and you and the person you take will have a unique experience, too.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Holistic Nursing Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Holistic Nursing - Research Paper Example The term complementary is preferred because it conveys the idea that these therapies are used together with, rather than as a replacement for biomedical treatment. On the other hand, the term alternative conveys the thought of a therapy being used in place of a biomedical treatment. Finding a good definition for complementary therapies has been an uphill task. Several definitions have been proposed. The complementary therapy is a broad area of medicine that is made up of health systems, practices and modalities plus their accompanying beliefs. In the definition, the term complementary medicine is used n place of complementary therapies. However, the word â€Å"medicine† can be changed to â€Å"therapies†. There are more than 1700 identified complementary therapies. Classifying these therapies is as daunting as coming up with their definition. This is because the therapies vary and they encompass indigenous cultural practices that are vastly unknown in the western world. Additional challenges come up because the mechanisms of action for many complementary therapies are not known (Lange & Zahourek & Mariano 2013). NCCAM has suggested the following groups for complementary therapy: biological based therapies, mind-body therapies, manipulative and body-based therapies and energy therapies. NCCAM has noted that a complementary therapy is no longer classified as a complementary therapy once it becomes an accepted treatment for specific conditions (NCCAM, 2005). The boundaries between complementary therapy and the dominant health care systems keep changing. As a result, what may be considered as complementary at a point in time can be recognized as part of the mainstream healthcare later on . Complementary and alternative therapies are healthcare topics that have instigated discussion and debate in a large way. Many people in the US have shown considerable interest in these topics. This is evident